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# Forest Management

## What is Forest Management?

Changing structure or age of forest, using:

\bigskip

\colbegin
\column{.5\paperwidth}
\centering

\includegraphics[width=0.40\paperwidth]{timber_harvest.jpg}

**Timber harvesting**

\p \column{.5\paperwidth}
\centering

\includegraphics[width=0.40\paperwidth]{fire.jpg}

**Controlled burns**

\colend

## Effects on Forest Ecosystem

\centerbegin
\includegraphics[width=0.8\paperwidth]{hee_patch_spring2011.jpg}
\centerend

\colbegin
\column{.35\textwidth}

**Abiotic**

* Light
* Moisture
* Temperature

\p \column{.45\textwidth}

**Biotic**

* Understory vegetation
* Food availability
* Insect diversity

\colend

## Effects on Forest Ecosystem

\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.35\paperwidth]{clearcut.png}
\raisebox{0.5\height}{\includegraphics[width=0.10\paperwidth]{rightarrow.png}}
\includegraphics[width=0.35\paperwidth]{singletree.png}

## Harvest Types

\colbegin
\column{.5\paperwidth}
\centering

\includegraphics[width=0.40\paperwidth]{clearcut_diagram.png}

\bigskip

\includegraphics[width=0.40\paperwidth]{clearcut.png}

**Clearcuts**

\p \column{.5\paperwidth}
\centering

\includegraphics[width=0.40\paperwidth]{patchcut_diagram.png}

\bigskip

\includegraphics[width=0.40\paperwidth]{patch.png}

**Patch Cuts**
\colend

## Harvest Types

\colbegin
\column{.5\paperwidth}
\centering

\includegraphics[width=0.40\paperwidth]{shelterwood_diagram.png}

\bigskip

\includegraphics[width=0.40\paperwidth]{shelterwood.png}

**Shelterwood Harvests**

\p \column{.5\paperwidth}
\centering

\includegraphics[width=0.40\paperwidth]{singletree_diagram.png}

\bigskip

\includegraphics[width=0.40\paperwidth]{singletree.png}

**Single-tree Selection**

\colend

## Objectives

How does timber harvesting affect:

\bigskip

\colbegin
\column{.4\textwidth}
\centerbegin

**Wildlife demography?**

\bigskip
\includegraphics[height=1in]{blackandwhite_warbler.jpg}
\centerend

\p \column{.4\textwidth}
\centerbegin

**Trophic interactions?**

\bigskip
\includegraphics[height=1in]{each_dispersal.jpg}
\centerend

\colend

## Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE)

\colbegin
\column{.5\textwidth}

**Key Features**

1. Landscape-scale
2. Multiple harvest treatments
3. Pre- and post-harvest data

\column{.5\textwidth}
\centering
\includegraphics[height=2.5in]{hee_area_transparent.pdf}
\colend

## Before-After Control-Impact Design
\centering
\includegraphics[height=3in]{baci.pdf}

# Breeding Birds

## Breeding Birds
\colbegin
\column{.5\textwidth}
**Habitat Loss** $\rightarrow$ **Population Declines**

* Development
* Fragmentation
* Maturation of existing forest

\column{.4\paperwidth}
\centering
\includegraphics[height=2.1in]{cerulean_warbler.jpg}

\colend

## Importance of Early-Successional Habitat
\centerbegin
\includegraphics[width=0.7\paperwidth]{clearcut_long.png}
\centerend

* **75%** of shrubland species declining
* **50%** of species using young forest habitat

\p \bigskip

**How does harvest affect the bird community?**

## Breeding Bird Sampling

\centering
\includegraphics[height=2.7in]{hee_cores_transparent.pdf}

## Bird Response Summary
\ftline{\cite{Kellner2016d}}
\centering
\includegraphics[height=2.7in]{hl_resp.pdf}

## Species of Special Concern

\colbegin
\column{0.5\paperwidth}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.15\paperwidth]{blackandwhite_warbler.jpg}

Black-and-white Warbler

\bigskip
\includegraphics[width=0.15\paperwidth]{cerulean_warbler.jpg}

Cerulean Warbler

\column{0.5\paperwidth}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.2\paperwidth]{hooded_warbler.jpg}

Hooded Warbler

\bigskip
\includegraphics[width=0.2\paperwidth]{worm_eating_warbler.jpg}

Worm-eating Warbler
\colend

## Species of Special Concern
\ftline{\cite{Kellner2016d}}
\centering
\includegraphics[height=2.7in]{focal_hl.pdf}

## Bird Species Richness
\ftline{\cite{Kellner2016d}}
\centering
\includegraphics[height=2.9in]{hl_rich.pdf}

## Habitat Factors
\p \ftline{Ruhl et al. \textit{in review}}
\centering
\includegraphics[height=2.7in]{clearcut_fruit.pdf}

## Breeding Bird Conclusions

**Community**

* Habitat diversity $\rightarrow$ species diversity
* Minimal impact of small (single-tree) canopy openings

\p \bigskip

**Individual Species**

* Consistent responses of shrubland specialists to harvest
* Mixed effects on "mature forest" species
* Effects moderating ~8 years post-harvest

# Acorn Dispersal

## Small Mammals as Dispersal Agents

\colbegin
\centering
\column{0.2\paperwidth}

\includegraphics[width=0.2\paperwidth]{wfmo.jpg}

\column{0.2\paperwidth}

\includegraphics[width=0.2\paperwidth]{each.jpg}

\column{0.2\paperwidth}

\includegraphics[width=0.2\paperwidth]{grsq.jpg}

\colend

* Acorns are a crucial food resource
* Make small caches (scatterhoards)
* Caches *may* promote germination

\p \bigskip

Considered **conditional mutualists** with oak

## Seed Dispersal Effectiveness

**Small mammals are effective dispersal agents when:**

1. Acorns are removed from under the parent tree
2. Removed acorns escape consumption

\p \Large

$$SDE = P(removal) \times P(survival | removal)$$

## Shelterwood Effects on SDE

Do changes in habitat affect foraging behavior, and thus SDE?

\p \ftline{\cite{Kellner2014}}

\centering
\includegraphics[height=2.2in]{smam_microhab_subset.pdf}

## Measuring Acorn Fate

\centering
\includegraphics[height=2.2in]{dispersal_methods.eps}

## Seed Dispersal Effectiveness
\ftline{\cite{Kellner2016}}
\centering
\includegraphics[height=2.7in]{sde.pdf}

## Impact on Oak Regeneration

\colbegin
\column{.6\textwidth}

SDE for oak is lower in shelterwood harvests.

\bigskip

Does this affect oak regeneration success?

\column{.3\paperwidth}

\includegraphics[height=2.2in]{oak_seedling.png}

\colend

## Building a Simulation Model
\ftline{\cite{Kellner2017b}}
\centering
\includegraphics[height=2.3in]{soel_diagram.png}

## Visualizing the Simulation
\centering
\animategraphics[loop,autoplay,height=2.4in]{4}{soel/frame-}{0}{33}

## Simulation Results
\ftline{\cite{Kellner2017b}}
\centering
\includegraphics[height=2.6in]{soel_predation.pdf}

## Dispersal Conclusions

**Shelterwood harvest affects acorn dispersal**

* Acorn Removal higher, survival lower
* Increased understory cover, reduced overstory cover
* Reduced predation risk $\rightarrow$ greater foraging efficiency?

\p

**Changes in dispersal don't ultimately impact regeneration**

* Reduced SDE reduces germination and seedlings
* Other filters more important for saplings
* Increased light > negative effects on dispersal

## Overall Conclusions

1. Timber harvest has both numeric and behavioral effects on wildlife

\p \bigskip

2. Given (1), indirect impacts on forest management goals are possible

## Acknowledgments

\centerbegin
\includegraphics[width=0.5\paperwidth]{hee_logo.png}
\centerend

* Collaborators: Rob Swihart, Patrick Ruhl, Barny Dunning, Nate Lichti
* 40+ technicians
* HEE coordinators and executive committee
* HEE partners: Indiana DNR, Purdue, Ball State, ISU, Indiana, Drake, TNC

## Questions

\LARGE

kenneth.kellner@mail.wvu.edu